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dougtamjj
(@dougtamjj)
Expert

3. The Amazon Rain Forest

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Posted : December 9, 2014 5:11 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

G'evening everyone. Another challenge? Have fun!

1. What element glows blue and 1 gram of it can generate 140 Watts of power? Polonium - Pdmargie. Yes! Polonium, discovered by Marie Curie and named after Poland.

2. At a quadrillion times (1016) more powerful than sulfuric acid, what substance can eat through glass and explodes when exposed to water? Fluoroantimonic acid - JohnnyU
Yes! This acid can eat through glass, because the fluoride ions attack the silicon atoms in glass while the protons are interactive with the oxygen.

3. What valuable resource produces 20% of the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere? 3. The Amazon Rain Forest - Dougtamjj Yes. 20% is incredible!
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/teacher_resources/best_place_species/current_top_10/amazon_rainforest.cfm

4. What is the difference between bee stings and wasp stings? One loses their stinger - JohnnyU - Yes, this is true, whereby the bee loses his stinger and the wasp does not, but I'm looking for another specific chemically related fact. Good answer! A bee sting is acidic; a wasp sting is alkaline. (Swan)

5. The universe is governed by what 4 forces? Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic, gravitational - JohnnyU. Yes!

6. What force binds neutrons and protons together in the core of atoms? Strong Force - JohnnyU. Yes.

7. In what mineral are the atoms of a pyramid latticework shape? Diamond. DanielB_STX. Yes. Diamond.

In the case of carbon, aside from soot and charcoal, the most commonly known forms are diamond, graphite, and the fullerenes. In diamonds, the atoms are arranged in a pyramid shaped lattice. The atoms of graphite are sheets of hexagonal lattice, while fullerenes are similar lattices arranged into shapes such as balls (Buckminsterfullerine) or cylinders (carbon nanotubes). The different forms have different properties: diamond is electrically insulating and hard; graphite is an electrical conductor and is soft – hence its use as pencil “lead”.
http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=67

8. What material is 100-300 times stronger than steel, is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity, is bonded in a hexagonal layering, and is 1 atom in thickness? Graphene - Pdmargie. Yes! Graphene.

9. At room temperature, what are the only two liquid elements? Hg & Br JohnnyU. - Yes. Mercury and Bromine are the only two elements that are liquid at room temperature. Gallium can be melted if it is held in the hand.

10. What is considered the deadliest poison on Earth? Botulinum - DanielB_STX . Yes! Clostridium botulinum: An amount the size of one grain of salt can kill a 200lb, man; 8.8lbs (4kg) of the substance can kill the entire population on earth. This is also known as Botox..

Thank you everyone! I hope you have as much fun as I and find this a challenging experience in researching answers, as I have in formulating the questions. Good job!
Swan

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Topic starter Posted : December 9, 2014 6:05 pm
Pdmargie
(@Pdmargie)
Advanced Member

Naked eye comet soon to be visible???

http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/binocular-comet-lovejoy-heading-c2014-q2-lovejoy-1211142/

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Posted : December 16, 2014 9:18 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Naked eye comet soon to be visible???

http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/binocular-comet-lovejoy-heading-c2014-q2-lovejoy-1211142//blockquote >

"....Q2 is a very long-period comet, but this is not its first time coming through the inner solar system. On the way in, its path showed an orbital period of roughly 11,500 years. Slight perturbations by the planets during this apparition will alter the orbit a bit, so that it will next return in about 8,000 years...."

It certainly leaves you humble to think that a comet will revisit in another 8000 years from now, a few years longer than we. How can you not love these characters...:-)
Swan

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Topic starter Posted : December 17, 2014 12:25 am
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

G'evening.
Anyone interested in a few more questions on science? Have fun!

Swan

1. What is a term applied to a phenomenon observed in superfluids, such as liquid Helium at temperatures below 2.18 K (Liquid Helium II) and found in Neutron Stars occurring, in which, below a critical temperature, it leads to a behavior such as frictionless flow?

2. What do the quarks Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom quickly undergo particle decay into?

3. What forces allow geckos to stick to walls and ceilings?

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Topic starter Posted : December 19, 2014 1:45 am
Alana33
(@alana33)
Expert

2. A quark (/?kw?rk/ or /?kw?rk/) is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.[1] Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples), and mesons.[2][3] For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves.

There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top.[4] Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators).

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge. For every quark flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as an antiquark, that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964.[5] Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons, and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.[6][7] Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors. The top quark was the last to be discovered at Fermilab in 1995.[5]

3. Geckos can stick to walls and ceilings because of Van der Waals forces;
In physical chemistry, the van der Waals force (or van der Waals' interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another, with neutral molecules, or with charged molecules.[1]

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Posted : December 19, 2014 10:39 am
DanielB_STX
(@DanielB_STX)
Advanced Member

Alana33 beat me to it. I only know #3 - van der Waals force. I read about them years ago and curiosity killed the cat.

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Posted : December 19, 2014 11:21 am
Pdmargie
(@Pdmargie)
Advanced Member

#1: super conductivity.

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Posted : December 19, 2014 11:46 am
aussie
(@aussie)
Trusted Member

1. superfluidity

2.Up and down quarks.

3. peanut butter

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Posted : December 19, 2014 12:40 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

G'evening.
Anyone interested in a few more questions on science? Have fun!

Swan

1. What is a term applied to a phenomenon observed in superfluids, such as liquid Helium at temperatures below 2.18 K (Liquid Helium II) and found in Neutron Stars occurring, in which, below a critical temperature, it leads to a behavior such as frictionless flow? Superconductivity (pdmargie)and Superfluidity (Aussie) - They aren't the specific term I'm looking for. Good try.

2. What do the quarks Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom quickly undergo particle decay into? Yes. Up and Down are stable and most abundant. - Alana, Aussie

3. What forces allow geckos to stick to walls and ceilings?
Yes, Van der Waals Forces. Thanks Alana ; Daniel.
Aussie: your geckos got into a jar of Jif...

Question #1?

/blockquote>

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Topic starter Posted : December 19, 2014 2:49 pm
Alana33
(@alana33)
Expert

The superfluid properties of a Bose-Einstein Condensed Gas
It lies at the heart of phenomena such as superconductivity and superfluidity of liquid helium [?]. ......

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Posted : December 19, 2014 4:18 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

The superfluid properties of a Bose-Einstein Condensed Gas
It lies at the heart of phenomena such as superconductivity and superfluidity of liquid helium [?]. ......

The science is right Alana. What could be the "term" applied to this?

Hint:

This quantum mechanical phenomenon occurs when heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion. Heat takes the place of pressure in normal sound waves. This leads to a very high thermal conductivity. It is known by the "term" I'm looking for, because the wave motion of heat is similar to the propagation of sound in air.

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Topic starter Posted : December 19, 2014 5:02 pm
JohnnyU
(@JohnnyU)
Advanced Member

Pure Quantum State?

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Posted : December 19, 2014 5:06 pm
Alana33
(@alana33)
Expert

Second sound is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion .

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Posted : December 19, 2014 5:10 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Second sound is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion .

1. Yes. Second sound. Excellent job!

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v498/n7452/full/nature12136.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_sound

2. What do the quarks Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom quickly undergo particle decay into? Up and Down quarks.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark

3. What forces allow geckos to stick to walls and ceilings?
Van der Waals Forces.

Thank you all!

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Topic starter Posted : December 19, 2014 5:41 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

"A planet that "rains rocks?" Our Galaxy certainly does have a sense of humor!

Computer models of COROT-7b, a planet orbiting an orange dwarf star in the constellation Monoceros, 490 light years away, suggest that the world has a surface temperature hot enough to boil rock.

The research, by scientists at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, conjures up a vision of hell.

COROT-7b, a rocky planet around twice the size of the Earth but of similar density, is only 1.6 million miles from its star: 23 times closer than the innermost planet in our solar system, Mercury, is to the Sun.

This proximity means that the planet is gravitationally locked, like the Moon to the Earth, so that one side of the planet always faces the star.

So while its far side is in perpetual freezing darkness – around 50 degrees above absolute zero – its near side is a balmy 2,800C.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/6250618/Hell-planet-where-rock-falls-as-rain-found.html

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Topic starter Posted : December 22, 2014 9:22 pm
Pdmargie
(@Pdmargie)
Advanced Member

Location, location, location if you plan to stroll along the terminator,.....too hot,....too cold,.....or juuuust right.

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Posted : December 22, 2014 10:17 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Science questions anyone?
Ready for some more fun? Shall we 'heat it up?'

1. Cold is not the opposite of heat. Explain.

2. What is heat?

3. What is the temperature whereby the speed of a particle is zero.

4. In any substance, what is the temperature related to?

5. What two (2) criteria must be met in order to solidify Helium?

Bonus: What do 8.6400 X 104 seconds equal?

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Topic starter Posted : December 23, 2014 3:11 pm
Alana33
(@alana33)
Expert

1. Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
Heat is transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of their difference in temperature.
Note: It is generally thought that the opposite of heat is "cold". This is not the case! Cold is the opposite of "hot". Hot and cold are relative amounts of heat.

2. Heat is energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase.

3. Thermodynamic temperature’s null point, absolute zero, is the temperature at which the particle constituents of matter are as close as possible to complete rest; that is, they have minimal motion, retaining only quantum mechanical motion. Zero kinetic energy remains in a substance at absolute zero (see Heat energy at absolute zero, below).

4. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature

5. Helium is the only element that cannot be solidified by lowering the temperature at ordinary pressures; this must be accompanied by a pressure increase.

6. Solar Day 8.6400 x 104 s
(time for one rotation
with respect to the sun)

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Posted : December 23, 2014 7:10 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Science questions anyone?
Ready for some more fun? Shall we 'heat it up?'

1. Cold is not the opposite of heat. Explain.
Alana: Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
Heat is transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of their difference in temperature.
Note: It is generally thought that the opposite of heat is "cold". This is not the case! Cold is the opposite of "hot". Hot and cold are relative amounts of heat.
While all these points are true, a more definitive answer describes the statement.

2. What is heat?
Alana: Heat is energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase. Yes.
Heat is Energy.

3. What is the temperature whereby the speed of a particle is zero.

4. In any substance, what is the temperature related to?

5. What two (2) criteria must be met in order to solidify Helium?
Just a bit more specificity please.

Bonus: What do 8.6400 X 104 seconds equal?

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Topic starter Posted : December 23, 2014 7:53 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Science questions anyone?
Ready for some more fun? Shall we 'heat it up?'

1. Cold is not the opposite of heat. Explain.
Alana: Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
Heat is transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of their difference in temperature.
Note: It is generally thought that the opposite of heat is "cold". This is not the case! Cold is the opposite of "hot". Hot and cold are relative amounts of heat.
While all these points are true, a more definitive answer describes the statement.

2. What is heat?
Alana: Heat is energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase. Yes.
Heat is Energy.

3. What is the temperature whereby the speed of a particle is zero.
Yes. The temperature is -273.16 C/ -459.68F.

4. In any substance, what is the temperature related to?
The amount of energy possessed in the particles of the substance: the atoms/ molecules).

5. What two (2) criteria must be met in order to solidify Helium?
Just a bit more specificity please.

Bonus: What do 8.6400 X 104 seconds equal?
Yes. One day.

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Topic starter Posted : December 23, 2014 8:08 pm
Alana33
(@alana33)
Expert

5.The volume of solid helium, 3He and 4He, can be decreased by more than 30% by applying pressure. Solid helium has a projected density of 0.187 ± 0.009 g/mL at 0 K and 25 bar. Solid helium also has a sharp melting point and a crystalline structure. There are two forms of liquid helium: He4I and He4II.
Helium I (He4I)
Helium I is formed when temperature falls below 4.22 K and above the lambda point of 2.1768 K. It is a clear liquid that boils when heat is applied and contracts when temperature is lowered. Below the lambda point, helium does not boil, but expands. Helium I has a gas-like index of refraction of 1.026 which makes its surface difficult to see. It has a very low viscosity and a density 1/8th that of water. This property can be explained with quantum mechanics. Both helium I and II are quantum fluids, displaying atomic properties on a macroscopic scale due to the fact that the boiling point of helium is so close to absolute zero.
Helium II (He4II)
At 2.174 K, helium I forms into helium II. Its properties are very unusual, and the substance is described as superfluid. Superfluid is a quantum-mechanical state of matter; the two-fluid model for helium II explains why one portion of helium atoms exists in a ground state, flowing with zero viscosity, and another portion is in an excited state, behaving like an ordinary fluid. The viscosity of He4II is so low that there is no internal friction.
He4II can conduct heat 300 times more effectively than silver, making it the best heat conductor known. Its thermal conductivity is a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper. The conductivity and viscosity of helium II do not obey classical rules, but are consistent with the rules of quantum mechanics. When temperature is lowered, helium II expands in volume. It cannot be boiled, but evaporates directly to gas when heated.
In this superfluid form, liquid helium can flow through thin capillaries or cracks much faster than helium gas. It also exhibits a creeping effect, moving along the surface seemingly against gravity. Helium II creeps along the sides of a open vessel until it reaches a warmer region where it evaporates. As a result of the creeping behavior and the ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, helium II is very difficult to confine. Helium II also exhibits a fountain effect. Suppose a chamber allows a reservoir of helium II to filter superfluid and non-superfluid helium. When the interior of the container is heated, superfluid helium converts to non-superfluid helium to maintain equilibrium. This creates intense pressure on the superfluid helium, causing the liquid to fountain out of the container. ??????

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Posted : December 23, 2014 8:19 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Science questions anyone?
Ready for some more fun? Shall we 'heat it up?'

1. Cold is not the opposite of heat. Explain.
Alana: Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
Heat is transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of their difference in temperature.
Note: It is generally thought that the opposite of heat is "cold". This is not the case! Cold is the opposite of "hot". Hot and cold are relative amounts of heat.
While all these points are true, a more definitive answer describes the statement.

2. What is heat?
Alana: Heat is energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase. Yes.
Heat is Energy.

3. What is the temperature whereby the speed of a particle is zero.
Yes. The temperature is -273.16 C/ -459.68F.

4. In any substance, what is the temperature related to?
The amount of energy possessed in the particles of the substance: the atoms/ molecules).

5. What two (2) criteria must be met in order to solidify Helium?
Extreme, Intense Applied Pressure and a Temperature of -272 C.

Bonus: What do 8.6400 X 104 seconds equal?
Yes. One day.

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Topic starter Posted : December 23, 2014 8:35 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Science questions anyone?
Ready for some more fun? Shall we 'heat it up?'

1. Cold is not the opposite of heat. Explain.
Cold is the absence of heat.

2. What is heat?
Heat is Energy.

3. What is the temperature whereby the speed of a particle is zero.
The temperature is -273.16 C/ -459.68F.

4. In any substance, what is the temperature related to?
The amount of energy possessed in the particles of the substance: the atoms/ molecules).

5. What two (2) criteria must be met in order to solidify Helium?
Extreme, Intense, Applied Pressure and a Temperature of -272 C.

Bonus: What do 8.6400 X 104 seconds equal?
Yes. One day.

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Topic starter Posted : December 23, 2014 9:27 pm
swans
(@swans)
Trusted Member

Stardust, meet our Parents....

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Topic starter Posted : January 6, 2015 2:37 pm
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